The wordanesthesiaIt comes from the Greek and means "lack of sensation". Anesthesia is achieved by the administration of drugs that suppress nerve function. With general anesthesia, the patient is unconscious for a short time. During this state of unconsciousness, muscle relaxation and a complete loss of pain sensation occur.
Other types of anesthesia include local anesthesia such as numbing a localized area of skin or a tooth, and spinal anesthesia such as an epidural, which is commonly used in humans during childbirth.
What are the risks of anesthesia?
There is always a risk of side effects when using anesthetics, whether for short-term sedation or general anesthesia lasting several hours.
"In general, it is estimated that about 1 in 100,000 animals will show some type of reaction to an anesthetic."
It is generally estimated that approximately 1 in 100,000 animals will show some type of reaction to an anesthetic. These reactions can range from mild swelling at the injection site or a slight decrease in cardiac output to complete anaphylactic shock or death. However, many experts estimate that the risk of death from anesthesia is less than the risk of driving to and from the hospital for anesthetic treatment.
Another potential danger associated with anesthesia arises if the dog is not properly fasted prior to anesthesia. Anesthetized patients lose the normal reflex ability to swallow. If there is food in the stomach, the dog could vomit during anesthesia or in the early stages after anesthesia. If vomiting occurs without a swallowing reflex, the vomited material can be aspirated or enter the lungs and cause aspiration pneumonia, a life-threatening condition.
Other rare complications of anesthesia include organ system failure (such as kidney, liver, or heart failure), vision problems, coagulopathy, and seizures. Your vet will take every precaution to minimize these risks while your dog is under anesthesia. Only when the benefits outweigh the risks will your dog be drugged.
Are there things that can be done to minimize the risks?
A preoperative physical examination, preoperative blood and urine tests, and radiographs can detect clinical and subclinical disorders that could increase the risk associated with anesthesia. These conditions include heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, anemia, dehydration, and certain infectious diseases such as heartworm.
"Blood tests increase the chance of discovering a hidden problem that could be life-threatening."
Blood tests increase the chance of discovering a hidden problem that could be life-threatening. In older animals, chest x-rays and an electrocardiogram (ECG) are often recommended to ensure that there is no pre-existing cardiac or pulmonary pathology that may increase the risk of an adverse reaction.
Prompt intravenous access for emergency drug administration is one of the most important factors in the successful management of cardiovascular or respiratory failure. By placing a catheter and intravenous (IV) line prior to anesthesia, your vet can ensure that lifeline is already in place if needed. Anesthetics, fluids, and emergency medications can be given through the IV line.
Intravenous fluids help maintain the anesthetized patient's blood pressure and replace lost fluids (fluids lost during surgery by evaporation from the surfaces of body cavities, by bleeding, and in tissues that are removed). After the procedure is complete, intravenous fluid therapy speeds up the recovery process by diluting the anesthetics circulating in the bloodstream and improving their metabolism and elimination through the liver and kidneys. Patients who receive intravenous fluid therapy generally wake up faster than those who do not.
Furthermore, studies have shown that 0.9-2% of all patients receiving general anesthesia develop renal dysfunction 7-14 days after anesthesia. This risk is significantly reduced in patients receiving perioperative intravenous fluid therapy. Although 98% of all pets don't have a problem, your vet's goal is to eliminate that unknown 2%.
"All surgical patients should receive intravenous catheterization and fluid therapy."
For these reasons, all surgical patients should receive intravenous catheterization and fluid therapy.
You should make sure your vet has your dog's complete medical history available, especially if your dog has been seen at another veterinary clinic. Before anesthetizing your dog, your vet needs to know about any medications or supplements your dog has received in the last few weeks, any pre-existing medical conditions, known drug reactions, the results of previous diagnostic tests, and whether the dog has done this. . in the past they have undergone anesthetic or surgical procedures. Other useful information includes the bitch's vaccination status and reproductive status (i.e. when she was last in heat or heat).
Why do I have to sign an anesthesia consent form?
It is important that you fully understand what is going to happen to your dog and that you acknowledge that you understand the risks involved with anesthesia. The form usually also includes consent to undergo surgery or other specific diagnostic tests, and an estimate of the probable cost of the procedures. In many areas, the regulatory agency requires that the veterinarian obtain the client's written consent before performing anesthetic procedures.
Can you describe a typical anesthesia?
All anesthetic patients are weighed on admission and undergo a thorough preanesthetic evaluation. This includes examining the chest, palpating the abdomen, and evaluating the gums (checking fluid levels and showing good blood flow). The medical history is taken and additional diagnostics such as blood or urine tests, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG) or x-rays may be performed before the administration of anesthetics.
"With balanced anesthesia, the patient receives a combination of sedatives and anesthetics..."
In the vast majority of cases, a technique called "balanced anesthesia" is used. With balanced anesthesia, the patient receives a combination of sedatives and anesthetics that is adapted to body weight and optimally tailored to the individual needs of the patient. The most common combination is a preanesthetic combination of sedative and pain reliever given by injection, followed by an injectable inducer that induces anesthesia. A breathing tube, called an endotracheal tube, is then inserted into the windpipe, or windpipe. The endotracheal tube is used to administer anesthetic gas mixed with oxygen to keep the dog anesthetized. In addition, the endotracheal tube seals the airway so that the patient does not inadvertently aspirate fluids or other foreign matter while unconscious and unable to swallow.
How is an anesthetized dog monitored?
Anesthesia monitoring in a veterinary clinic is similar to that in any human hospital. Below is a list of common methods for monitoring anesthesia:
"The surgical assistant is the most important monitor during an anesthetic procedure."
There is assistant OPit is the most important monitor during an anesthesia procedure. This professional worker is trained to observe and monitor the patient throughout the entire procedure from initiation to recovery. The assistant adjusts anesthesia levels based on the patient's vital signs and ensures that the patient remains stable throughout the procedure.
of the electrocardiogram, abbreviated EKG, is also called EKG. An electrocardiogram shows the rate and pattern of your heartbeat. Detects and displays abnormal heartbeats called arrhythmias. If an arrhythmia is detected, the anesthesiologist will make appropriate changes in anesthesia and/or administer rescue medication.
The heart rate monitormeasures the number of heartbeats per minute. The heart rate must be kept within a certain range. Both the depth of anesthesia and surgical stimulation can affect heart rate. By monitoring the heart rate, increases or decreases can be detected early and anesthesia adjustments can be made quickly, resulting in gentler anesthesia for our patients.
the sphygmomanometermeasures systolic (when the heart contracts or pumps) and occasionally diastolic (when the heart relaxes or fills) blood pressure. Together with other monitoring devices, it provides detailed information about the cardiovascular status of the patient.
respirometermeasures the number of breaths per minute.
core body temperaturemonitored, particularly during prolonged operation, by inserting a temperature probe into the esophagus or rectum. Low or high body temperature can cause dangerous complications. Maintaining normal body temperature is particularly important in small or pediatric patients and contributes to rapid recovery from anesthesia.
pulse oximetryIt can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen in the patient's blood (Sp02) and pulse rate. This instrument should always be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment.
He monitors the C02 of the final seait is often used in conjunction with a pulse oximeter. This device measures the amount of CO2 exhaled and helps determine if the patient is receiving adequate oxygen during anesthesia.
How long does it take my dog to recover from anesthesia?
With current anesthetics, many of which are reversible, your dog should be almost completely normal by discharge. Many dogs are sleepy or tired twelve to twenty-four hours after anesthesia. If your dog seems unusually sluggish or cannot be easily awakened, contact the hospital immediately for specific advice.